Woodturning is a machining process in which an object or part is carved using a machine tool called a lathe. The lathe rotates the part at high speed, while the cutting tools get closer to the surface of the part to shape it and remove excess material.
It can be said that the wood lathe was the first lathe to be invented in ancient times. From this rudimentary machine tool, the different lathes that we know today emerged and that are adapted to work with metals and other materials. Woodturning does not fall directly into the category of carpentry, since it is not done by a carpenter but by a turner.
This machine tool is made up of a head that is in charge of moving the piece of wood, thanks to the advance unit with pulleys. In addition, the wood lathe has a bed that gives stability to the tool and guides that allow movement. This displacement is carried out through a carriage, which has two movements: axial and transverse. The tailstock is the part of the lathe that houses the headstock and serves to support one end of the part to be machined.
Finally, this machine tool is equipped with a power switch and speed controls that allow the cutting speed (performed by the head) and the feed rate (performed by the part to move) to be adjusted.
The lathe and the wood
For turning results to be as desired, it is important to choose the right wood. For this, it is necessary to take into account the characteristics and the use that will be given to the final piece and, of course, consider the characteristics of the wood. And it is that the wood lathe is capable of creating the most varied pieces, even baseball bats.
Among the most worked woods in this machine tool are soft and hard woods. Within the soft woods we find pine; This is characterized by being abundant, economical and very versatile. In the hard woods, which are a little more difficult to work with, oak, walnut, ebony, olive and mahogany stand out; each of these woods has its own characteristics, degrees of hardness, colors, fibers, etc.
It is important to note that softwoods are the most advisable for people who are starting out in the world of woodturning; not only because the wood is softer, but also because it is cheaper.
What is the vice for wood lathe?
In order for the lathe to function properly, it is not only necessary to regulate the cutting and feed speeds, the revolutions per minute, the depth of cut on the lathe or choose the appropriate tools for machining; Nor is it enough to know the design of the part and its characteristics. It is also necessary to have a good clamping system that helps the part to remain fixed while machining is carried out.
One of these mooring systems is the clamp. Lathes are characterized by the fact that the part to be machined rotates on its own axis, while it moves forward and meets the cutting tools. In order for it to rotate at high speed, it is necessary that the piece is well supported and does not slide or change the position in which it has been placed. This is achieved through mooring systems such as the clamp.
What is the importance of the vice for wood lathe ? In addition to holding the part properly, a clamp guarantees very precise and quality work, but also provides greater comfort and safety for operators.
The clamp is one of the lathe tools that, through a spindle mechanism, allows the workpiece to be held by friction , while exerting constant pressure on it. Today it is possible to find different types of clamps that vary according to the machine tool. There are, for example, clamps with a fixed or rotating base. The swivels can be operated by manual, hydraulic or mechanical mechanisms and are usually placed on a circular plate.
Types of jaws
In addition to the classification of fixed or rotating clamps, three types stand out that are the most common in the industry:
- Screw clamp : it is the most common and it is possible to find it in different sizes and materials, the most common being metal or wood.
- Fixed-progressive advance: it is characterized by the fact that it has a key that allows it to be easily adjusted.
- Clamp gag: used to exert pressure on small objects.