To manufacture a high bench with specific measurements, the material of construction and the manufacturing process must be considered. Of the same. The bed is one of the most important parts of machine tools, since the entire machine is structured and erected on them. They are characterized by their rigidity and the ability to support pieces of large dimensions.
What is the bench?
The bed is the fixed structure of every machine tool. It is the base on which the machine is built, hence the name base or bank. The main characteristic of any bench, regardless of its type, is its rigidity, something that refers to the type of materials with which it is manufactured (they must be very resistant to high temperatures ), but also to its ability to withstand machining speeds.
It is important to note that if a bed shakes or moves while machining is in progress, the desired results may not be achieved. The beds are necessary in machine tools due to the deformations of their structure, which would end up conditioning the precision of machining.
In this part of the machine tool the other elements of the equipment are placed, but holding these materials is not the only task of the benches. They must be able to ensure the cutting forces and allow the adequate movement of the parts of the machine (such as carriages). The fact is that benches, in addition to being the base and structure of a machine, are the means by which the mobile elements of the machine move. equipment. It can be the cars or it can be the table. The forward and backward movement is done through guidesthat are installed on the bed and are special support surfaces.
Types of benches
Despite their rigidity, the benches do not always have to be positioned horizontalto the head of the part, but can be built according to the needs of the machine . This is how there are different types of benches for machines, such as the flat, the inclined and the high bench, whose measurements, in height, exceed the previous two.
The benches may vary depending on the machine tool in question. In the lathes, for example, they highlight the < strong>flatbed and the machines that have it are called workshop type lathes and can machine large-sized pieces. When it comes to slant bed lathes, small parts such as fittings are machined.
In the most compact machine tools, such as milling machines, desktop drills and grinding machines, among others, it is common to find high bench and with narrower length measurements than a horizontal bench, but higher in height.
High-bench: measurements and technical requirements
As we have already mentioned, the high bed is usually used for small machine tools that operate vertical or on a tabletop. What requirements must a bench meet to be effective? To begin with, this part of the machine must have the adequate arrangement of the other elements of a machine; This guarantees that there is precision in the machining.
On the other hand, the benches must have a static and dynamic rigidity, have bridges and columns and great resistanceto the wear produced not only by the guides that move on it, but by the vibrations produced during machining.
Choosing the appropriate material for the construction of the benches depends on the conditions of work in the workshop, as well as the type of >machining that is carried out and, in general, of the use that is given to the machine tool. Today, despite the differences regarding their dimensions, almost all benches are built using the same materials:
- Grey cast iron. This is the most common element with which benches are manufactured. When the guides belong to the body of the same and are not elements mounted on it, then the iron must have great resistance to wear.
- For smaller machines, such as DIY machines that do not require extensive machining, the high bed can be made of CY 18-36 cast iron, which has a hardness of HB-60-230.
- When the high bedplate has simple wall configuration measurements (between 10 and 30 mm thick), then CY 21-40 type cast iron is used; if the thickness increases from 20 to 60, then the iron will be type 28-40. If the thickness increases, so will the type of cast iron used.
High-bench-making and its measurements
There are two methods to manufacture benches, regardless of the type:
- By casting: this type of bench is made with cast iron.
- By welding: for those made with carbon steel.
Choosing the bench manufacturing method depends on economic and technical aspects that both forms of construction provide. The high cast iron benches, for example, require less complexity than those of steel, which is why they are cheaper and it is the most used technique when it comes to the production of machines in series.
On the other hand, welding benches are built when you want to make machines in a short period of time and when it is not recommended to build iron molds for foundry.